Thursday, April 30, 2009

Africans have world's greatest genetic variation

Africans have more genetic variation than anyone else on Earth, according to a new study that helps narrow the location where humans first evolved, probably near the South Africa-Namibia border.
The largest study of African genetics ever undertaken also found that nearly three-fourths of African-Americans can trace their ancestry to West Africa. The new analysis published Thursday in the online edition of the journal Science.
"Given the fact that modern humans arose in Africa, they have had time to accumulate dramatic changes" in their genes, explained lead researcher Sarah Tishkoff, a geneticist at the University of Pennsylvania.
People have been adapting to very diverse environmental niches in Africa, she explained in a briefing.
Over 10 years, Tishkoff and an international team of researchers trekked across Africa collecting samples to compare the genes of various peoples. Often working in primitive conditions, the researchers sometimes had to resort to using a car battery to power their equipment, Tishkoff explained.
The reason for their work? Very little was known about the genetic variation in Africans, knowledge that is vital to understanding why diseases have a greater impact in some groups than others and in designing ways to counter those illnesses.
Scott M. Williams of Vanderbilt University noted that constructing patterns of disease variations can help determine which genes predispose a group to a particular illness.
This study "provides a critical piece in the puzzle," he said. For example, there are clear differences in prevalence of diseases such as hypertension and prostate cancer across populations, Williams said.
"The human genome describes the complexity of our species," added Muntaser Ibrahim of the department of molecular biology at the University of Khartoum, Sudan. "Now we have spectacular insight into the history of the African population ... the oldest history of mankind.
"Everybody's history is part of African history because everybody came out of Africa," Ibrahim said.
Christopher Ehret of the department of history at the University of California, Los Angeles, compared genetic variation among people to variations in language.
There are an estimated 2,000 distinct language groups in Africa broken into a few broad categories, often but not always following gene flow.
Movement of a language usually involves arrival of new people, Ehret noted, bringing along their genes. But sometimes language is brought by a small "but advantaged" group which can impose their language without significant gene flow.
Overall, the researchers were able to study and compare the genetics of 121 African groups, 60 non-African populations and four African-American groups.
The so-called "Cape-colored" population of South Africa has highest levels of mixed ancestry on the globe, a blend of African, European, East Asian and South Indian, Tishkoff said.
"This will be a great population for study of diseases" that are more common in one group than another, she said.
The study also found that about 71 percent of African-Americans can trace their ancestry to western African origins. They also have between 13 percent and 15 percent European ancestry and a smaller amount of other African origins. There was "very little" evidence for American Indian genes among African-Americans, Tishkoff said.
Ehret added that only about 20 percent of the Africans brought to North America made the trip directly, while most of the rest went first to the West Indies.
And, he added, some local African-American populations, such as the residents of the sea islands off Georgia and South Carolina, can trace their origins to specific regions such as Sierra Leone and Guinea.
The study was funded by the National Cancer Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education at Vanderbilt University, the L.S.B. Leakey and Wenner Gren Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard and Burroughs Wellcome foundations.


Uganda lowers flag on disputed island

The Ugandan flag flying on a Lake Victoria island at the centre of a dispute with neighbouring Kenya has been lowered in a bid to calm diplomatic tensions, a government spokesman said Tuesday.
"In keeping with the spirit of East African Community cooperation and integration, President (Yoweri) Museveni directed, after consultations, that the Ugandan flag be lowered on Migingo island," Fred Opolot said.
"The nerves of Kenyans should be calmed," he added.
Tiny Migingo island, whose 500 residents live amidst lucrative fish stocks, became the object of escalating rhetoric and tit-for-tat measures by the authorities of both states in recent months.
Migingo is much closer to the Kenyan mainland and most residents are Kenyan but Uganda has consistently claimed ownership and its security forces have been present on the island since 2004.
Tensions began to rise when Ugandan security began charging Kenyans residency fees.
Following bi-lateral negotiations near Kampala in March, Uganda and Kenya commissioned a panel of experts to consult colonial-era maps in Britain to determine rightful ownership of the island.
Opolot said the panel has returned from London and will reveal its findings in Nairobi this week. The two governments have pledged to abide by the panel's decision.
The 970-kilometre (603-mile) Kenya-Uganda border is poorly defined on water and on land.
The African Union has set 2012 as a deadline for all countries to survey and demarcate their boundaries as a way of avoiding future border disputes.

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Haya tena kwa wale mlio Ughaibuni na mliobahatika kusoma shule ya msingi Bunge Jijini Dar es salaam nawaletea kumbukumbu ya nembo ya shule yenu.
Bandari ya Dar es salaam ni muhimu sana kwa nchi zinazotuzunguka ambazo hazikubahatika kuwa na bahari, lakini swali kubwa ni kwamba je! tunaitumiaje bahati hiyo kwa manufaa yetu kikamilifu?

Monday, April 27, 2009

Watu wetu walio wengi bado wanaishi katika vijumba kama hiki pichani, wakati huo huo wawakilishi wao(Waheshimiwa Wabunge) wanaagiziwa magari ya gharama. Mategemeo ya wengi ni kwamba baada ya Uhuru wa mwaka1961 hadi kufikia wa leo(2009), nchi yetu ingekuwa imepiga hatua kubwa, na mojawapo ni kusaidia kuwapatia makazi bora wananchi wake, haswa haswa huko vijijini.

Vugu vugu la London. Mrema nae hakubaki nyuma

While visiting England , Mr. Mrema the Chairman of TLP was invited to have tea with the Queen. He asked her what her leadership philosophy. She said that it is to be surrounded with intelligent people. He asked how she knows if they're intelligent. "I do so by asking them the right questions," said the Queen. "Allow me to demonstrate." She phoned Tony Blair, "Mr. Prime Minister. Please answer this question: Your mother has a child, and your father has a child, and this child is not your brother or sister. Who is it?" Tony Blair responded, "It's me, ma'am." "Correct. Thank you and good-bye, sir," said the Queen. She hangs up and said, "Did you get that, Mr. Eliatonga?" "Yes ma'am. Thanks a lot. I'll definitely be using that!"
Upon returning to DAR, he decided he'd better put the minister of infrastructure by then Mr. Mramba to the test. He invited Mr. Mramba. "Heh brother, I wonder if you can answer a question for me." "Why, of course. What's on your mind?" "Uh, your mother has a child, and your father has a child, and this child is not your brother or your sister.. Who is it?" Mramba hems and haws and finally asked, "Can I think about it and get back to you?" Mrema agreed, and Mramba left.
He immediately called a meeting of other senior opposition parties and they puzzled over the question for several hours, but nobody could come up with an answer.
Finally, in desperation, Mramba called Magufuli, the former minister of his ministry, and explained his problem. "Now look here Magufuli, your mother has a child, and your father has a child, and this child is not your brother, or your sister. Who is it?" Magufuli answered immediately, "Simple, It's me, of course.
Much relieved, Mramba rushed back to Mrema and exclaims, "I know the answer! I know who it is! It's Magufuli, the former minister of my ministry!!!!!!" And Mrema replied in disgust, "PUMBAFU mkubwa wewe, ovyo kabisa, it's Tony Blair!!"
Mitaa ya Kariakoo Jijini Dar es salaam inabadilika kila kukicha. Pembeni kwa chini upande wa kulia ni soko kuu la Kariakoo.

Uwanja wa Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, Dar es salaam.

Uwanja wa ndege wa Mwalimu Julius Nyerere unavyoonekana kwa juu.

Saturday, April 25, 2009

Zidumu Fikra za Muungano!!!! "Umoja ni Nguvu na Utengano ni Udhaifu."

26th April, 1964 - 26th April, 2009

ANC wins big in South Africa

South Africa's ruling ANC won a sweeping election victory Saturday and party leader Jacob Zuma pledged that as president he would work with unions and business to ensure stability amid global turmoil.
"There will be no surprises in the next administration's program of action," Zuma said in a victory speech.
"The electorate has endorsed our call for an equitable, sustainable and inclusive growth path that will bring decent work and sustainable livelihoods," Zuma, who is due to be sworn in as president on May 9, said.
Official results of Wednesday's election gave Zuma's African National Congress 65.9 percent of the vote, a big victory but just short of the two-thirds needed to ensure a parliamentary majority big enough to make constitutional changes unchallenged.
The margin that would let the ANC change the constitution is largely symbolic. Despite some market concerns over whether the ANC would get the two-thirds majority, the party repeatedly has stressed it has no intention of changing the constitution.
Although a newly formed party of ANC dissidents failed to make a dramatic impact, the ruling party has seen its share of the vote fall for the first time since the end of apartheid in 1994. It won nearly 70 percent in 2004.
Political analyst Steven Friedman said the result meant the ANC now had to worry more about the opposition than it had since the party took power 15 years ago.
"The effect of them not getting the two-thirds, despite the euphoria, really underlines that there has been a drop in the ANC vote," he said.
"The ANC has to worry more about the opposition now than it has had to do since democracy."
Financial markets wary of a policy shift to the left under a Zuma presidency may welcome a limit on the party's power.
But Zuma has done all he can to emphasize that there will be no dramatic change, particularly as South Africa faces its first recession in 17 years as a result of the global financial crisis and cannot afford to discourage investment.
In his speech, he addressed both business interests and the leftist allies who helped his rise to power during eight years of struggling against corruption charges, which were dismissed early this month on a technicality.
"We are concerned about the potential impact of the global economic crisis. We will work with all stakeholders, especially business and labor, to find ways to prevent and cushion our people against job losses and other difficulties that may arise," he said.
Zuma, who said he was not disappointed that the ANC did not achieve a two-thirds majority, also called on South Africans to get over the divisions of the past.
"It is now time to put it all behind us. We must enter a period in which South Africa reclaims its position and image as a thriving nation, which can overcome all its difficulties, and which is able to put the country first above sectional and party political interests."
He said South Africa will continue with its efforts to find lasting solutions for political stability in neighboring Zimbabwe and other flashpoints in Africa.
The Independent Electoral Commission said the ANC will be allocated 264 seats in South Africa's 400-seat parliament after it won 11.65 million votes out of 17.68 million valid votes cast in the April 22 election.
The ANC also lost control of the Western Cape province, center of the tourist industry, to the official opposition Democratic Alliance (DA), led by Helen Zille, a white woman.
Zille's DA was the ANC's closest rival with 16.66 percent. The Congress of the People (COPE), formed by politicians who broke from the ruling party, stood at 7.42 percent. The DA will get 67 seats in parliament and COPE 30.
Inkatha Freedom Party support waned to 4.56 percent, giving it 18 parliamentary seats, of the vote from 6.97 percent in 2004. The ANC also made inroads into the IFP's traditional support base in KwaZulu-Natal province, home to South Africa's Zulus -- the biggest tribal group, of which Zuma is a member.
Electoral officials said the turnout was 77.3 percent, a little higher than in 2004.
The rand currency firmed well over 2 percent against the dollar to a new 6-1/2-month high late Friday, aided by a strong euro and higher stocks as well as the smooth election

Huu ni mpangilio wa makazi ya wenzetu huko Afrika ya Kusini kando kando ya Jiji lao!!

Huu ndio mpangilio wa ujenzi wa nyumba kwenye kando kando ya Jiji la Dar es Salaam!!

Hiki kituo kikuu cha treni pale Dar nadhani kinahitaji ukarabati.

Maraha ya Bongo ni pamoja na hii ya kunywa na kula nyama choma kwenye vi-bar vya kando kando mwa barabara huku ukitupia macho mambo yanaendaje mtaani.

Friday, April 24, 2009

Kabda hata ya matokeo ya mwisho ya uchaguzi kutangazwa, tayari sherehe za ushindi zimeshaanza katika kile kinachotegemewa kwamba Bwana Jacob Zuma na chama chake cha ANC watajinyakulia ushindi mkubwa.


I have a place to stay in the human body; I sometimes stay in a hotel called digestive juices, or a motel called blood or brothel called Feme ekgolo.
But mostly in a restaurant called sperm. Everybody knows me!Yebo, yes! I am HIV, the son of AIDS and I was born in one human body during unsafe sex, but I multiplied like a bull.
You may ask the rich, the poor, Blacks, Whites, males, females, doctors, sangomas. They all know me very well as my young brother STD. I attack hundreds of people all over the world every day.
Listen, I will take you one by one, especially those who hate my Uncle condom. I will take you to decorate my grave. You will die young. Africa knows me, the whole world knows me.I am HIV, son of AIDS.
I frequent shebeens and bar lounges and I respect no age. I hide between sexy legs and delicious thighs and big buttocks. Some call me
Koloi ya Elia,
Number 1,
Manyonyoba, Ukimwi
Thubalebotsane and other silly names but I don't care,because my name is:
HIV son of Aids and I have no friends.
I kill Doctors,Nurses,Lawyers, Teachers, Priests, Professors,Ministers, Bishops, Street Sweepers and I have got no shame. I will drink your blood, suck your juices, drain your fat until you are a living skeleton and from there I will kick you to the grave.
You men fasten your trouser belts. You women don't loosen your panties and G-Strings because I am watching you. The only way you can beat me is to be accompanied by my uncle Condom whom I hate so much. He is the only one who can try to defeat me. Mothers hear me, Fathers hear me, Brothers hear me,Sisters hear me intellectuals hear me, Stupids hear me,Retards hear me, Clevers hear me and I am telling you for the last time
"My name is HIV and I have got no friends".
After reading this you must know I am sitting next to you and just
one blunder I am going to consume you. Who knows, I may already be in your blood system so go right now and take blood tests, but if you are always in the company of my Uncle Condom you need not worry.
My name is HIV son of AIDS and I have no friends!!!

Mkurugenzi wa Benchmark Ritah Paulsen (katikati)akiongea na waandishi wa habari kuhusu shindano la kuwasaka nyota Bongo Star Seach(BSS)kwa mkoa wa Dares Salaam zoezi hilo litafanyika jumamosi hadi jumapili katka ukumbi wa World cinema.(kushoto)Meneja udhamini wa Vodacom Emillian Rwejuna na kulia ni Meneja Mawasiliano Nector Foya wa Vodacom Tanzania ambao ni wadhamini wakuu wa Bongo Star Search.

Thursday, April 23, 2009


Ndugu yangu Bwana Mwingira, amekuja na mjadala ambao kusema kweli hata mimi umenigusa
sana. Hizi siyo porojo bali ni masuala muhimu sana ya kuangaliwa haswa kwa nchi changa kama Tanzania. Ni vizuri wanajamii tukajitokeza katika kuchangia maoni yetu na pengine katika kubadilishana maoni kukatokea la maana!!
-Fundi K. Ramadhani-



I’ve been trying to navigate the issue of a national ID card in Tanzania. I have noticed that in recent months this issue has heavily dominated the media. There are many aspects to this debate. The on-going discussions on who will be awarded the contract, who is vouching for whom, and which leaders will personally gain from the tender award are beyond my sphere of influence. Therefore, I will only base my arguments on the tech/IT realms of it and will leave room for open and constructive discussion on other areas, notably corruption, irresponsibility and mismanagement.

At the end of the day, someone will eventually be awarded that ‘lucrative deal’. Therefore, at this point, what I really care for is how that someone is going to implement the system and sustain it. Unfortunately, so far public interest has not been on debating the benefits of the system, but rather on who will be awarded the project. Clearly, corruption is in our DNA as a society. It links us all in thoughts and instincts, and the consensus among the citizenry is that majority of those in power are corrupt. Ironically, this resentment is somewhat powered by envy - there are enough people out there who praise and talk with admiration on corrupt practices done by some public officials. As Nyerere once said, this is a plague that may haunt us for many years to come.

Moving beyond this, I am a strong supporter of the National ID card system. I think the Government should bring this program to fruition. The benefits in this global age of technology will be astronomical if implemented well and maintained accordingly. If we get serious, Tanzania can have one of a kind National ID card system in sub-Sahara that is systematic and comprehensive. The prospect of a functioning e-government can finally materialize based on this system. From government statistics (administration, taxation, revenue etc), to private usage in banks (loans, credits), hospitals (patient info, billing), by employers (verification, payroll) to the police and Court system (identification, criminal records), and many more, they will find this National ID system crucial in conducting their daily tasks. Don’t forget that non-governmental functions will be charged a fee for data verification. Therefore, this will potentially bring in additional revenue to the government.

I know a thing or two about IT and data management, so I have some worries since we are yet to fully understand the details of the system sought by the Government. As I write this, I’m almost certain that many people think this issue is just a matter of issuing ID cards and that’s it. NO. There is implementation, sustaining, training, security, data access, data backups, and massive storage to name just a few. I believe any ID card system should have the following four key components: an initial individual identity verification system; a database; an ID card and a secondary ID card verification system.

Before a card can be issued, there must be some means of ensuring that the person receiving the card is who he or she claims to be. Any ID system is only as good as its ability to accurately identify people in the first place. Now the question is, how are we going to effectively do this? It is estimated that by 2015 there will be 57 million people in Tanzania, with current growth rate of 1.4% in every 5 years. This will pose a greater challenge in obtaining accurate data at child birth, and taking accurate census of those who are still alive or dying. Most hospitals and clinics don’t keep efficient birth and death data on file. The health centers are generally not computerized and most of the children born in rural areas are being delivered at home with no State documentation whatsoever. Forget about rural, it’s a problem obtaining a copy of a birth certificate even in central Dar es Salaam at the newly restructured “Vizazi na Vifo” State agency. Only a small fraction of the population today carries a passport. BUT we can still do this national ID project if we have a long-term perspective. Yes, we might have false or insufficient data to start the identification process with, but if we put sufficient identification infrastructure in place today at hospitals, clinics, and at immigration centers across the country, going forward the data will slowly become more accurate. We have to start somewhere - government workers will have to be trained and civic education will have to be given on the benefits of good record keeping. If I remember correctly, we succeeded in having a CCM branch in every village; there is no reason why we can’t be ambitious again on a crucial project like this.

The next step after individual citizen identification effort will be to issue the ID cards. Aspects of material, durability and security (photo quality, forgery & tamper-proof) of the card itself will have to be looked into. Point of issuance, whether by Government or private contractors will have to be ironed out as well.

Thirdly, a database with massive storage capacity is the backbone of the system. The government should oversee who implements the best Storage Area Network (SAN). This is a whole different ball game here. A private company could be contracted to manage this SAN, or perhaps the same company that will build the system can be extended to manage it. Whatever the case may be, how we design and manage the SAN will help in the long run to avoid incurring massive operation costs. We need a unique architecture that can manage data inside effectively. We also need a scalable hardware to eliminate the need for time costing upgrades, and powerful software for optimizing it. Also, this company will need to be fully vetted and trusted to manage this sensitive national information. The contractor should be able to set, grant and manage data access for commercial use without compromising national security and privacy rights.

Deriving any value from building enhanced high-tech security measures into a national ID system will require a massive secondary ID card verification architecture. Putting a microchip on an ID card, or having some way of linking it to the SAN database will complete the project. Agencies such as the Police, the CID, the Courts System, TRA, and Immigration, as well as private entities such as Airlines and the banking/ATM/credit card sector, or any person for that matter who should have cause to inspect the ID card should have a machine capable of reading its advanced features. So, for instance, we are talking about high speed computers in every Police station in Tanzania, or computers in their vehicles, that are linked to the national database. We also need to implement a system with forward compatibility. For example, when we finally implement the infrastructure to the police, it should be capable of “plug and play”, meaning it should require little or no hardware upgrade to avoid unnecessary and wasteful future projects. We should train our “finest” police officers on how to operate these computers. We should not go halfway and just create a peace of paper that ends up being sold like a phone voucher on the street and call it a National ID. We really need to stay the tech-course with utilization, automating, replication and speeding up data recovery, or else we decide to put this project on the back burner until we are ready. We can have the system built today and completed tomorrow but the major huddle will be sustaining it.

I hope that the ministries of Home Affairs and Science and Technology respectively are collaborating with the University of Dar es Salaam’s IT department. This is sensitive national data that the Government will have to protect, so whatever IT technology is to be deployed it needs to be secured and robust. Of course, the building inspectors need to make sure the hardware is placed in a fireproof, theft-proof and flood-proof building.

A.G. Mwingira

Mgombea wa ANC, bwana Jacob Zuma akipiga kura yake katika kijiji cha Nkandla, kusini mwa Jiji la Durban jana. Mazungumzo yaliyopo kwa sasa ni kwamba endapo bwana Zuma atashinda uchaguzi huu, je! ni nani kati ya wake zake atakuwa mama wa kwanza(First Lady) ?

Wananchi wengi wamejitokeza kwa wingi katika uchaguzi mkuu huko Afrika ya Kusini jana kupiga kura zao ili kumchagua nani aliongoze Taifa hili kubwa Barani Afrika. Walio wengi wanamtegemea mgombea wa ANC bwana Jacob Zuma kuwa ndiye atakayetokea kuwa mshindi.

Mambo ya English Premiership Football League ndio hayo tena... naona wapenzi wa Bwawa la Maini mmelazimishwa sare(4-4) !! Poleni sana hasa kaka yangu Michuzi.

Wednesday, April 22, 2009


Taratibu na sisi tutafika!! Kwani wenzetu walianzaje? Mambo kwendambele...

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Mategemo ya Taifa la kesho. Hawa wanaitaji sana kujengewa msingi mzuri wa elimu na malezi bora ili waweze kupambana na hali ya maishani ya kijiji cha Dunia ya kesho.

Someone Else’s Treasure - Tanzania

Tanzania is blessed with an abundance of mineral resources. In gold alone, Tanzania is estimated to be sitting on top of a US$39 billion treasure. When you factor in the large quantities of diamonds, copper, silver, gem stones, and other minerals – not to mention its wildlife, agricultural, and human resources – Tanzania should be a very wealthy country.
While Tanzania has developed into the third biggest gold producer in Africa, the country remains one of the poorest in the world. With a life expectancy of 51 years, 89.9% of the population lives on less than $2 a day. Leading some critics to argue that not only are Tanzanians not benefiting from its abundance of mineral resources, but that the multinational mining industry has contributed to impoverishing the rural poor.
Accounts of mass displacements, violent confrontations, lost livelihoods, exploited workers, and contaminated ecosystems raise serious questions about the mining industry in Tanzania and internationally. The focus here is on communities surrounding the Bulyanhulu and North Mara Gold Mines, both owned by the world’s largest gold mining company Barrick Gold, and the Geita Gold Mine, owned by the third largest gold company, AngloGold Ashanti.
Canada, home to about sixty percent of the world’s mining corporations, leads the way in the global mining industry. But some critics have labeled the mining industry as Canada’s number one contribution to global injustice. As the industry continues to shape the world we all live in, it is the hardships endured by the men, women, and children like these that make our way of life possible.

Monday, April 20, 2009

Hivi ndivyo ilivyokuwa wakati wa yale mashindano ya mbio za Boston Marathon yalifanyika leo na Deriba Merga wa Ethiopia kuibuka mshindi kwa upande wa wanaume na Salina Kobgei wa Kenya kwa upande wa wanawake. Salina alichuana vikali sana na Dire Tune wa Ethiopia mpaka sekunde za mwisho.
First Ladies of countries throughout Africa pose for a photo Monday, April 20, 2009, at the African First Ladies Health Summit in Los Angeles. Standing back row from left: Ida Odinga wife of Kenyan prime minister; Hadjia Laraba Tandja of Niger; Penehupifo Pohamba of Namibia; Thandiwe Banda of Zambia; Maria da Luz Dai Guebuza of Mozambique; Mathato Sarah Mosisili of Lesotho and Sia Nyama Koroma of Sierra Leone. Seated front row from left: Adelcia Barreto Pires of Cape Verde; Chantal Biya of Cameroon; Ana Paula Dos Santos of Angola; Queen Inkhosikati LaMbikiza of Swaziland and Dr. Turai Umaru Yar'Adua of Nigeria.


Sunday, April 19, 2009

Utaalamu wa ukwezi wa mnazi na jinsi ya kulichuna dafu.

Katika hali ambayo haikutegemewa, Mzee Mandela ajitokeza katika mkutano wa kampeni za mwisho mwisho kabda ya uchaguzi wa tarehe 22 mwezi huu, kuonyesha kumuunga mkono kwake mgombea wa ANC bwana Jacob Zuma. Mzee Mandela alitumia nafasi hiyo kuwakumbushia ANC ya kuwa wanajukumu la kuondoa umasikini na kuleta umoja nchini Afrika ya Kusini. Mamilioni ya watu bado wanaishi katika hali ya dhiki kama inavyoonyesha picha ya pili toka chini. Picha ya juu anaonekana Mzee Mandela akisaidiwa kushuka jukwaani na Zuma mara baada ya mkutano huo wa kampeni.